Articles

[Art .] Graphene or not Graphene…

Published

on

The media publish and broadcast by myriads that graphene is at the heart of the conspiracy sphere, so we read fake news. With some very basic scientific descriptions, it is not a newspaper until the many sheets of cabbage that publish information all public, then speak of rumors, conspiracy theory, Trojan horse …[1] [2] [3] [4]

To make a long story short, the skeptics and the so-called anti-vaccines are good for psychiatry, and they spread rumors through social networks, whether it is about masks, magnetism in the body, graphene… According to many media all these rumors have no scientific basis. The threat of the virus is real, we must be responsible! All these fears are unfounded, the WHO has approved the anti-Covid vaccines, their composition is known and public, there are no assumptions to be raised.

By a simple search that you can check, we find in Strasbourg the Foundation for Research in Chemistry, 1st University in Chemistry of the European Union (created by the French state in 2007). What do we find on their website?[5] [6]

Extract:

“Fighting Covid-19 and future pandemics with graphene: Researchers from CNRS and the University of Strasbourg have conducted a critical analysis of the most promising strategies, based on the use of graphene-related materials, reported in the literature to fight viral pandemics like Covid-19. This perspective was published in the journal Advanced Materials.

Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, graphene-related materials, such as graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide, have been extensively studied over the past 15 years…applications based on graphene-related materials described in the literature that appear to be most relevant to combating viral pandemics… In particular, the exploitation of the antiviral activity of suitably functionalized graphene-related materials for drug delivery, the development of smart surfaces and coatings, and the value of (bio)detection are discussed. This critical analysis positions graphene-related materials as powerful allies in the fight against SARS-CoV-2, as well as other emerging infectious diseases.”

It comes as a surprise to read that scientists, working in laboratories, have known for several decades about the properties of graphene, its derivatives and possible applications in the case of pandemics, against Covid and future recalcitrant viruses.

If journalists have not been able to do a simple research, we can worry and question the possible information and firewalls launched in all directions. In support of its articles, the Foundation for Chemical Research quotes a publication from 03.02.2021 [7]

Extract:

Graphene: A Disruptive Opportunity for COVID-19 and Future Pandemics?

« The graphene revolution, which has taken place during the last 15 years, has represented a paradigm shift for science. The extraordinary properties possessed by this unique material have paved the road to a number of applications in materials science, optoelectronics, energy, and sensing. Graphene-related materials (GRMs) are now produced in large scale and have found niche applications also in the biomedical technologies, defining new standards for drug delivery and biosensing. Such advances position GRMs as novel tools to fight against the current COVID-19 and future pandemics. In this regard, GRMs can play a major role in sensing, as an active component in antiviral surfaces or in virucidal formulations. Herein, the most promising strategies reported in the literature on the use of GRM-based materials against the COVID-19 pandemic and other types of viruses are showcased, with a strong focus on the impact of functionalization, deposition techniques, and integration into devices and surface coatings...

Application of GRMs and in general of hard nanomaterials in drug delivery has to be considered in a long-term perspective. Multifunctionalization strategies and antiviral efficacy must be still deepened. Additionally, there are different concerns about biocompatibility and long-term toxicity of 2D materials. Although studies are already available,[61] the toxicological risks of GRMs are not completely cleared. In this context, we solicit the scientific community work for the standardization of the tested GRMs in order to obtain robust answers for their safe applications in any field. Different hard nanomaterials are now clinically approved for human treatment,[62] and we hope that some of the GRMs will be soon included into this list. Despite the current extraordinary results, GRMs have been only marginally explored in viral infections. In particular, their potential in blocking cell uptake, inhibiting viral replication, and alerting the immune system has not been unleashed yet. There is still a long way to go before establishing GRMs as optimal solution to combat SARS-CoV-2. However, by considering the huge potential held by such unique materials in view of their unique properties, which can be further modulated via controlled functionalization, one can foresee a bright future for GRMs in the fight against the current COVID-19 and future pandemics.»

Here is an article that will enlighten us, dated May 13, 2021 by Martyn Warwick[8], journalist, chief editor of TELECOM TV. His CV is edifying, he is a well-known figure in the international telecommunications sector. He has interviewed a wide range of people from Ban Ki Moon to Bill Gates and John Chambers, the UN Secretary General, or various politicians such as William Hague, Boris Johnson.

Extract:

“This stuff will be essential to 6G networks graphene-based supercapacitors, reprogrammable smart surfaces and integrated plasmodium antennas.

The first commercial deployments at 1THz are possible by 2030.

They will consume less power, generate less heat, amplify 6G beams and improve spectrum efficiency…

Raghu Das, CEO of IDTechEx, said, “6G systems could become a trillion dollar market…

Fifteen years ago, small amounts of graphene were made by slicing, at the atomic level, incredibly thin layers of the substance from a block of graphite. Demand for graphene has increased fourfold since 2019, and today large quantities of high-quality graphene are routinely manufactured, with the goal of seeing the substance manufactured at scale and integrated into a myriad of products, including batteries, solar panels, electronic, photonic, and communications devices, and medical technologies.

According to the European Commission’s Future and Emerging Technologies Initiative, its “Graphene Flagship Program” (with a budget of €1 billion and the largest research project in the EU), graphene will move from being a rare component in niche products and applications to being widely available by 2025, and by 2030 will be as disruptive as silicon was in the early days of computing.”

In addition, it appears that many scientific research [9] use gold or carbon nanoparticles, which have the ability to host RNA to protect it from degradation and deliver it into target cells (Zheng et Al – 2012 / Hela, Yang et Al – 2014). Vaccines used against Covid19 are described as RNA gene therapies. Therapies known since the beginning of the century (Pr Alain Fischer – 2000s). Are we in the presence of gene therapies known for more than 20 years[10] and not new vaccines against COVID? These therapies have been and are used in particular in oncology. Thus, the rapidity of action of the said vaccines against COVID, does not appear to be new, contrary to the semi-mandatory mass vaccination such as it is taking shape in various regions of the world.

The CNIPA, Intellectual Property Administration of China [11], tells us that a patent is filed in 2020 by SHANGHAI NATIONAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. (picture below) combines well graphene and RNA from COVID19.

Extract: « The invention belongs to the field of nano materials and biological medicines, and relates to a vaccine, in particular to development of a 2019-nCoV coronavirus nuclear recombinant nano vaccine. The invention also comprises a preparation method of the vaccine and application of the vaccine in animal experiments. The novel coronavirus vaccine contains graphene oxide, carnosine, CpG and novel coronavirus RBD; The carnosine, the CpG and novel coronavirus RBD are combined on a framework of the graphene oxide; the coding sequence of the CpG is as shown in SEQ ID NO 1; and the novel coronavirus RBDrefers to that a novel coronavirus protein receptor binding region can generate a high-titer specific antibody aiming at the RBD in a mouse body, and strong support is provided for prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus.»

How to explain that many Anglo-American press agencies, but also reputable newspapers are still screaming about fake news?[12] [13] [14]

The narratives and methods used to disprove what constitutes the material of patents or research questions an increasingly curious and scrutinizing public of the web. This wide dissemination of scientific information that appears to be arbitrarily protected ends up being an open secret. Reputable laboratories with budgets deemed unlimited are now accused of unexplained concealment and put in the hot sea

Dr. Ramya Dwivedi holds a PhD in Biotechnology from the National Chemical Laboratories (CSIR-NCL), Pune. Her work involves functionalization of nanoparticles with various molecules of biological interest, studying the reaction system and establishing useful applications. She has also tackled research in molecular biology, immunology, evolutionary biology, chemistry, AFM imaging and analysis, and spectroscopy. Her interests span the interdisciplinary sciences.

In an article from News Medical Life Sciences dated 02.02.2021 [15], this scientist explains that graphene and silver oxides used to manufacture composite materials against COVID are known:

“As vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are administered and extensive research is conducted to find targeted therapies to combat COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), it is equally crucial to develop more novel broad-spectrum antiviral compounds.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well known as antibacterial and antiviral agents. Another nanomaterial – graphene oxide (GO) – is also effective against microorganisms. Combined with its high surface area, it is an ideal carrier for drugs. With high levels of antiviral agents, the combination with graphene oxide is shown to have superior antiviral performance and reduced toxicity.”

“While many groups have studied graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles, a recent study examined the antiviral properties of GO-AgNP composite materials developed by Graphene Composites as part of their patent-pending GC Ink antiviral formulations.”

This research is not limited to the Indian subcontinent, she explains:

“Researchers at Brown University, Rhode Island, and Graphene Composites Ltd, UK, have collaborated to formulate an ink based on graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles with antiviral properties.”

Dr. Meredith J. Crane, co-author of the research, published on the bioRxiv*preprint server. supports this research:

“Our finding that the graphene oxide and silver nanoparticle-based ink can rapidly prevent in vitro infection by two different viruses is exciting, and suggests that the ink has the potential to be used in a variety of applications to help reduce the spread of viruses in the environment.

Numerous studies already existed in 2008-2009

Another research, by Horrick Sharma, Somrita Mondal (August 2020), uses graphene for cancer treatments. [16]

“Functionalized Graphene Oxide for Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery and Cancer Treatment: A Promising Material in Nanomedicine”

Extract: “The use of nanomaterials for cancer treatment has been a popular research topic over the past decade. Nanomaterials, including polymeric nanomaterials, metallic nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, and carbon-based nanomaterials such as graphene oxide (GO), have been used for cancer cell imaging, chemotherapeutic drug targeting, chemotherapy, photo-thermal therapy, and photo-dynamic therapy. In this review, we discuss the concept of targeted nanoparticles in cancer therapy and summarize the in vivo biocompatibility of graphene-based nanomaterials. Specifically, we discuss in detail the chemistry and properties of GO and provide a comprehensive review of functionalized GO and GO-metal nanoparticle composites in nano-medicine involving anticancer drug delivery and cancer treatment.

—————

It would be possible to continue the research and the answer to this question: graphene or not graphene? You have your idea…

We are told that graphene is already widely used for new 5G/6G technologies, for the manufacture of composite materials against COVID, but also for human medical technology applications this for several decades etc..

Science is at the service of so-called high-tech industries, laboratories, relayed by politicians.

We can bet that if “current vaccines do not contain graphene-type nanoparticles”, this will not be long in view of the profits, influences and takeovers of all kinds.

Biotechnology is evolving so fast… but do we notice the same motivation regarding its ethical use?

B.T 21.12.2021

Continue Reading

Tendance